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Stroke

World stroke Day raising awareness about stroke

By: Dr Brighton Chireka • 29th October 2016

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World Stroke Day 29th October 2016

By Dr Brighton Chireka

Today is the World Stroke Day. We observe this on October 29 to raise awareness about the serious nature and high rates of stroke. We want people to be aware about the prevention and treatment of this condition and ensure better care and support for survivors. Many of us have heard of stroke or we know someone who has had this disease. We always worry about it because we do not fully understand it and what causes it . Today, the World Stroke Day, I have compiled this article which will explain in simple language about stroke.

Statistics in Zimbabwe and United Kingdom

The disease burden from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in Zimbabwe is rapidly increasing. All data nationally generated between 1990 and 1997 were analysed in a study. Results were that, from 1990 to 1997, prevalence rates (expressed per 100,000 people) of hypertension increased from 1000 to 4000, rates of diabetes increased from 150 to 550, and rates of Stroke increased from 5 to 15.

In the United Kingdom, 120 000 people have their first stroke every year. 30 000 have a recurrent stroke . Stroke is the largest cause of disability and 3rd most common cause of death ( after heart disease and cancer ). Stroke occurs mostly in people above 65 years but we are seeing young people getting stroke

30% of people who survive a stroke are fully independent within 3 weeks . This rises to about 50 % within 6 months. I million are living with stroke in United Kingdom. Half of these depend on others for help with everyday activities.

Blood supply to the brain

All our organs including the brain need blood supply . Blood carries glucose and oxygen which is needed by these organs to function. Lack of oxygen and glucose can damage the cells in these organs . The heart and the brain need constant supply of blood. The brain is supplied by 4 main blood arteries. These are on the front, the right and left carotid arteries and at the back we have the right and left vertebral arteries. These arteries will branch into smaller blood vessels which supply the rest of the brain cells .

What is stroke?

Stroke is a non-communicable disease (NCD). NCD is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non-infectious or non-transmissible).
Stroke means blood supply to the brain is suddenly cut off. As mentioned earlier the brain needs constant supply of oxygen from blood. Soon after the blood supply is cut off the brain cells become damaged or die. The effect of the damage will depend on the blood vessel blocked . If it is a large vessel then a large area of the brain will be affected . If it is small blood vessel then a smaller area is affected.

What are the types of stroke ?

We have two main types , the ischaemic and the haemorrhagic stroke.

Let us look at Ischaemic stroke
This type of stroke is caused by a blood clot ( ischaemic means a reduced blood and oxygen supply to any part of the body) 70% of cases are ischaemic stroke . In ischaemic stroke blood vessel will have developed a patch of fatty material called atheroma. When this becomes thicker it does trigger blood to clot. When blood clot in a blood vessel in brain it results in stroke .

Sometimes a clot forms in another part of the body and then travels through bloodstream – thrombus . This is what happens in Irregular heart beating called atrial fibrillation (AF). AF can cause a clot in the heart chambers due to abnormal turbulent blood flow. The clot is then carried in the blood stream until it gets stuck in an artery in the brain .

Let us look at the Haemorrhagic stroke
A damaged or a weakened artery may burst or bleed especially when the blood pressure is high. The bleed can happen inside the brain and is called Intracerebral haemorrhage- (a blood vessel inside brain bursts spilling blood into the nearby brain tissue.) The affected brain cells then lose their oxygen supply and become damaged or die . This happens in 10% of cases .

Another haemorrhage is called Subarachnoid haemorrhage- blood vessels burst in the subarachnoid space. This is the narrow space between the brain and skull. This space is normally filled with a fluid called cerebrospinal fluid . This type of stroke happens in 5 % of cases.

In some very rare cases the cause of stroke is not known.

 

Mini stroke ( Transient ischaemic attack TIA) is 

This is similar to stroke but the symptoms only last less than 24 hrs. It’s due to temporary lack of blood to a part of the brain. This is usually due to a very tiny clot blocking a blood vessel resulting in the brain being starved of oxygen . The brain soon recovers because the clot either breaks up quickly or nearby bloods are able to compensate and supply that part of the brain that is starved of oxygen . TIA you must see your doctor immediately as you are at an increased risk of getting a stroke.

What are the symptoms of stroke ?

Functions of the body are controlled by different parts of the brain so symptoms will depend on the part of the brain damaged and also on the size of the damaged area . We need to remember that these symptoms of stroke develop suddenly.

Stroke and TIA are medical emergencies. A checklist of symptoms was devised and publicised so that members of the public are aware of it . This is also one of the reasons why I have compiled this article. You have to think of the word FAST. F- A-S-T the first three letters stand for symptoms to look for and T stands for Time meaning that once you see at least one symptom you should call for an ambulance.

F stands for facial weakness . Can the person smile ? Has their mouth or eye drooped ?
A stands for Arm weakness . Can the person raise both arms ?
S- speech disturbances – can the person speak clearly ? Can they understand what you are saying ?
T – Time to call 999/112/911 or your local number for emergency ambulance

Please do not delay . Act fast by calling an ambulance if you notice any of the above symptoms

Other symptoms include;
Headache , dizziness , unsteadiness, leg weakness , confusion, problems with swallowing , balance problems , visual problems and in severe cases, patient can pass out ( loss of consciousness).

How do we diagnose a stroke?
We usually diagnose stroke from the typical symptoms and signs which develop suddenly. After suspecting stroke a person is rushed to the hospital and CT or MRI scan to find out the type of stroke .
Blood tests are carried out to check the blood sugar and cholesterol as high levels can increase the risk of further stroke.
A chest X-ray and electrocardiograph (ECG) are done to rule out atrial fibrillation. A scan of carotid blood vessels is also done to check for atheroma.

What is the treatment of stroke?

A quick scan is done to determine type of stroke – ischaemic or haemorrhagic . This is very important as the initial treatment of the two is very different.
If it is ischaemic stroke and it is less than 4 1/2 hours since symptoms started , you may be given medicine to dissolve the clot ( medicine used is called alteplase) this process we call it thrombolysis ( breaking the thrombus ) thrombus is a clot .

Platelets are particles in blood which help blood to clot. Person with stroke must be put on anti platelets to reduce the risk of clot . Aspirin and clopidogrel are tablets used for that .

If the person is unable to swallow may need to be fed via a tube.
If blood pressure or blood sugar and blood cholesterol are raised then treatment will be started to control these

If Atrial fibrillation is found then blood thinning medication can be started- old treatment is warfarin . Nowadays we have new oral anticoagulant drugs such as rivaroxaban or apixaban etc

If scan of the carotid arteries showed severe atheroma then one will be offered surgery to strip out the atheroma.

If you have haemorrhagic stroke and you are taking blood thinning medication , you may be asked to stop taking them and given medication to reverse the effects of some of it like warfarin.

Rehabilitation of stroke patients involves a huge team of professionals. Some of them are Physiotherapists, Occupational therapists, Speech therapist, Dieticians, Psychologists, Nurses and Doctors .

What are the causes of stroke ?

Let us look at the causes of Ischaemic strokes

These are the most common type of stroke and occur when a blood clot blocks blood flow to the brain. The blood clots usually form in areas where the arteries have been narrowed or blocked over time by fatty deposits. Arteries also naturally gets narrow as we get older but certain things can speed up the process. The following will speed up the narrowing of blood vessels and increase the risk of us getting stroke .

smoking
high blood pressure (hypertension)
obesity
high cholesterol levels
diabetes
an excessive alcohol intake

Irregular heartbeat called Atrial Fibrillation (AF) can cause ischaemic stroke .
AF is caused by heart problems , thyroid problems and excess alcohol intake

Let us look at the causes of Haemorrhagic strokes

As explained in previous articles this type of stroke occur when a blood vessel within the skull bursts and bleeds into space around the brain.

Causes of haemorrhagic strokes

The main cause of haemorrhagic stroke is high blood pressure, which can weaken the arteries in the brain and make them prone to split or rupture. Things that increase the risk of high blood pressure include:

being overweight or obese
drinking excessive amounts of alcohol
smoking
a lack of exercise
stress, which may cause a temporary rise in blood pressure

Haemorrhagic strokes can also occur as the result of the rupture of a balloon-like expansion of a blood vessel (brain aneurysm) and badly-formed blood vessels in the brain.

What can we do to prevent stroke?

The best way to help prevent a stroke is to eat a healthy diet , exercise regularly and avoiding drinking too much alcohol.

These lifestyle changes can reduce the risk of problems such as arteries becoming clogged up by fatty substances, high blood pressure and high cholesterol, all of which are important risk factors of strokes.
These lifestyle changes are also important in those that have had stroke in the past in that they reduce the risk of having another stroke in future .

Let’s look at diet

An unhealthy diet can increase our chances of having a stroke because it may lead to an increase in our blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
We must eat a low- fat , high fibre diet including plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables and whole grains.
We must cut down on foods that are high in salt and also processed foods .
We must limit the amount of salt we eat daily to 6 grams ( this is about one teaspoonful). Too much salt will increase our blood pressure.

Let’s look at exercise

Ideally we should aim for at least 150 mins ( 2hours and 30minutes) of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, such as cycling or fast walking , every week.
Those recovering from stroke must discuss their exercise plan with their rehabilitation team as it is different from the general advise that I am giving you in this article.

So combining a healthy diet with regular exercise will help us to maintain a healthy weight , lower cholesterol level and keep our blood pressure at a healthy level

Let’s look at smoking

Smoking is not good for us at all. It narrows our arteries and makes our blood more likely to clot. If you stop smoking, you can reduce your risk of having stroke . Not only will you benefit as far as stroke is concerned, you will also reduce your risk of developing lung cancer and heart disease.

Let’s talk about alcohol 

Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to high blood pressure and trigger irregular heartbeat (atrial fibrillation), both of which can increase our risk of having a stroke.

Alcohol has high calories which also cause weight gain . Research has shown that heavy drinking multiples the risk of getting stroke by more than three times.

Managing underlying conditions

I Make sure that if you have medical conditions such as high blood pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes , mini stroke (TIA) , which are known to increase your risk of stroke, are well controlled .
Please share this article with your friends as we raise awareness about stroke. Leave me some comments as I love to hear from you all.

 

This article was compiled by Dr Brighton Chireka , who is a GP and a blogger based in Kent in the United Kingdom. Feel free to contact him at info@docbeecee.co.uk and you can read more of his work on his blog at DR CHIREKA’S BLOG

 
Disclaimer: This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions. Dr Chireka has used all reasonable care in compiling the information but makes no warranty as to its accuracy. Consult a doctor or other healthcare professionals for a diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. Views expressed here are personal and do not in any way , shape or form represent the views of organisations that Dr Chireka work for or is associated with.

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Depression is a disease

Explaining what is Mabayo / Isihlabo

By: Dr Brighton Chireka • 29th September 2016

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Explaining what is Mabayo /Isihlabo 

By Dr Brighton Chireka

Mabayo is a Shona word or Isihlabo in Ndebele ,  that is causing a lot of debate among the Zimbabwean community. Questions are being asked as to what actually is “Mabayo”. Some have even suggested that it means pneumonia which is chest infection. The question that remain unanswered is if Mabayo is pneumonia why is it that some get it in their lower tummy area? Is it still chest infection when one is getting Mabayo in the groin area.

The problem lies in people not understanding Mabayo hence the confusion when people try to come up with a definition. I will try to explain what Mabayo is and hopefully bring the debate to an acceptable conclusion.

Mabayo / Isihlabo is a symptom

Mabayo is a symptom and as such it is a subjective evidence of a disease , while a sign is evidence of disease. Mabayo is a phenomenon that is experienced by the individual affected by the disease , while a sign is a phenomenon that can be detected by someone (doctor , nurse etc) other than the individual affected by the disease.
The problem comes when people try to diagnose themselves and start giving their symptoms such as Mabayo a diagnosis such as pneumonia (Chest infection) . Mabayo like stomachache, lower-back pain, and fatigue,are symptoms and can only be felt by the patient; they are subjective – others only know about it if the patient tells them

The better you can describe your pain or Mabayo the easier it may be for your doctor to find the cause of the pain and treat your pain. Information that is helpful to your doctor includes:

1-How long you have had your Mabayo
2-Where you feel it
3-Whether it is in one spot or spread out
4-How it feels and how severe it is
5-Whether it is constant or comes and goes
6-What activities make it worse or improve it
6-How it limits what you can do
7-How often it occurs and how long it lasts
8-Anything that triggers it 

Keeping a pain diary or record of your Mabayo is a good way to track what triggers it as well as symptoms over time. Be as specific as possible. Some words that can help you describe the way your Mabayo includes:

 

Aching (kurwadza)
Cramping ( Kuruma-ruma)
Fearful ( anondityisa )
Gnawing (  anondishupa ndinobva ndashaya chekuita)
Heavy ( kutsimbirirwa)
Hot or burning ( Kupisa)
Sharp (  akapinza)
Shooting (kunge magetsi)
Sickening (ndoda kurutsa)
Splitting ( kutsemura chaiko)
Stabbing (kubaya-baya)
Punishing or cruel ( kunge kutochwa chaiko)
Tender ( side rese kudzimba)
Throbbing ( kuvhita kunge mune hurwa kana kunge katururu)
Tiring or exhausting ( ndonzwa kuneta kana kupera simba kana  atanga)

 

It is important for your doctor to know which of these symptoms you mean when you say, “I have Mabayo,” because the cause, diagnosis, and treatment are different for each symptom. If Mabayo are in chest area they could be due to chest infection such as pneumonia or it could be just muscular problem or anxiety. If Mabayo are located in the tummy then they could be due to diseases such as gallstones, kidney stones, appendicitis, pelvic inflammatory diseases, urinary tract infection to just mention a few . At times it could be just tummy upset , constipation or muscular strain.

 

Your doctor will come up with the right diagnosis if you explain your Mabayo fully without hesitating. Focus mainly on how you are feeling and not what you have read here or what others have told you about Mabayo. Mabayo is a pain symptom that can be located in the chest or abdominal area and can be like a spasm, cramp, ache, pins and needles and is caused by several diseases. Your job as a patient is to describe your Mabayo clear so that you get the right diagnosis and right treatment at the right time.

 

This is not only our problem

Patients both English or African often use the word “dizziness” when they are talking about a variety of symptoms, including:
* Vertigo (a feeling of spinning or whirling when you are not actually moving).
* Unsteadiness (a sense of imbalance or staggering when standing or walking). This sometimes is called disequilibrium.
* Lightheadedness or feeling as if you are about to faint (presyncope). This may mean there is a heart problem or low blood pressure.
* Dizziness caused by breathing too rapidly (hyperventilation) or anxiety.

It is important for your doctor to know which of these symptoms you mean when you say, “I am dizzy,” because the cause, diagnosis, and treatment are different for each symptom.

 

Just be yourself and express your symptoms  in simple terms answering the questions being asked by your doctor . Do not worry about memorising medical jargon , it’s not your area but your doctor’s, who will come up with the right diagnosis.
This article was compiled by Dr Brighton Chireka , who is a GP and a blogger based in Kent in the United Kingdom. Feel free to contact him at info@docbeecee.co.uk and you can read more of his work on his blog at DR CHIREKA’S BLOG
Disclaimer: This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions. Dr Chireka has used all reasonable care in compiling the information but makes no warranty as to its accuracy. Consult a doctor or other healthcare professionals for a diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. Views expressed here are personal and do not in any way , shape or form represent the views of organisations that Dr Chireka work for or is associated with.

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Travelling is good

Travelling is good for our health and wellbeing

By: Dr Brighton Chireka • 24th September 2016

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Travelling is good for us 

By Dr Brighton Chireka

Growing up in the rural villages of Zimbabwe, I used to get excited when a trip to visit the capital city, Harare, was being arranged. The night before the trip would be very long as the excitement will be overwhelming. I would be the first one to wake up and be ready to travel before my elders were even awake. The thought of travelling brought happiness and excitement to me.

Studies have shown that travelling offers health benefits to our mind , body and soul. We have all travelled and we can attest to the excitement that comes from being in a new environment. Travelling is not only exciting, it offers health benefits which I will cover below.

Travelling promotes the health of our heart

As a child the day of travelling would see us walking to the bus stop which was a few miles away . The rushing to the bus stops and now through airports as well walking on beaches promote physical activity. Physical activity lowers blood pressure and the risk of heart disease and stroke. Framingham heart study found that women who vacationed only every six years or less were nearly 8 times more likely to develop heart disease or have a heart attack compared to women who travelled at least twice a year. I would suggest that we must take a holiday at least twice a year to stay healthy.

Many companies are generous as they allow most of their workers at least 4 weeks of paid annual leave. Let us not use that time to go and do another job. We must use that time to travel and in the process improve our health.

Let’s have time for a good sleep when travelling

Let’s talk about sleep problems

 

Travelling is good for our mind

As we travel our brain is challenged by new environments and new experiences. This will increase cognitive stimulation and has been shown to improve both our memory and concentration. We know that staying mentally active is as important as staying physically active. We stay mental active by travelling as we meet new people , cultures , situations and experiences which will help our mental wellbeing. It is also advisable to visit different locations and not stick to the same spot every year. Our brain will benefit from the different activities associated with the new locations we may visit each year.

Most of us in the diaspora tend to just go back to Zimbabwe and visit the same locations. We are denying ourselves some of the benefits that are associated with traveling to new places.  It is cheaper and also good for our brain if we travel to some nice places in Europe or America as well as in other African countries.

Travelling relieves our stress levels

We all get stressed at times and struggle to carry on with our lives. The routine of our lives may be making us more stressed and putting ourselves out of that daily routine and see new environment will relief that stress. Travelling has been noted to relief our stress according to a 2012 Expedia survey. The survey found that 89% of travellers could let go of stress and just relax only a day or two into their trip. No more excuses that we do not have time because having something to look forward to, even if it’s a two or three-day trip can feel rewarding. The mere panning of a vacation boost our morale as we look forward to the things that we will be doing on holiday. Further studies have shown that travelling can lower levels of depression and improve our mental wellbeing.

We sometimes overwork ourselves which is not good for our health. Studies have shown that workers who take time off are more productive, have higher morale and are less likely to be stressed or burnout. Those that have been on holiday will agree with me that we experience less stress and we are more satisfied with our mood and outlook after returning from a trip compared to non- travellers.

Do not overwork yourselves

Overworking – killing me softly with this work

We are not worse off

When we are stuck in our usual environment we tend to feel bad about our situations. We tend to imagine that our personal problems are the worst in the world. When we travel we may see people who are worse off than us. This will make us realise that our problems are not as bad as we previously thought. This will help in lowering any stress or depression that may be affecting us. We will learn to value what we have in our lives and that will promote our mental wellbeing and stop us from being anxious and worry over little things.

Have time to eat some good food as well

Healthy eating , what diet should I follow

 

Travelling improves bonding with our loved ones

I will digress a bit on the issue of bonding with our loved ones. The family is the engine room that sustain us. It is the taproot that provides us with all the “nutrients” that we need to manage our daily life activities. We must have time to travel with our family and make the most out of it .

Our lives are so busy that at times we do not have enough time for our families and friends. We need to create time for our families as they are very important to us. Family is the people we depend upon. They know us better than anyone else and we can call on them whenever we need a hand. Before we have friends , teachers , colleagues and partners , we have family. Spending time with our family will make us realise our own strengths and weaknesses. We learn how to support each other. However and whenever we need them, the people we call family will be there – but it takes effort.

 

Family time

Family time

 

We need to build the bonds from an early age by setting aside time for the family. It’s not only about travelling together , it also include things that we take for granted such as eating dinner together every night .It’s easy to think ‘we see each other all the time, we can do it another time’, but once you fall out of the routine it’s much harder to schedule it back in there. Remember that this is not time you get to opt out of. Take time to have a one- on-one when you are on holiday and also try to find things that you all enjoy.

We need to be “present when travelling with family”
We are now good at multi-tasking in our busy lives, but when we are spending quality time travelling with family we need to stop answering phones or checking emails or posting on social media. If you have children remember that you are their role model . Every move you take is being watched . If we spend all the time on the phone during family vacation then we are giving them the impression that they can pull out their hand held games and not participate in family activities. As our children grow they must know that if they are in trouble they can talk to us. By being there from the beginning means they are more likely to come to you when they really need your help.

 

I hope that after reading this article you will be called to action and go ahead in booking that long overdue vacation. Enjoy your vacation and make the most out of it .

 

Please do leave me a comment telling me how travelling has enhanced your life and your health .
This article was compiled by Dr Brighton Chireka , who is a GP and a blogger based in Kent in the United Kingdom. Feel free to contact him at info@docbeecee.co.uk and you can read more of his work on his blog at DR CHIREKA’S BLOG
Disclaimer: This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions. Dr Chireka has used all reasonable care in compiling the information but makes no warranty as to its accuracy. Consult a doctor or other healthcare professionals for a diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. Views expressed here are personal and do not in any way , shape or form represent the views of organisations that Dr Chireka work for or is associated with.

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Sare, Real or myth

Is SARE real or a myth in Zimbabwean community

By: Dr Brighton Chireka • 11th December 2015

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Is “SARE” a myth or real ?

By Dr Brighton Chireka

The day we refuse to learn is the day we die. We have some traditional practices that need to be challenged and if not fit for purpose then we should discard them. I have done my research on SARE and got worried with what I found out. I am bringing the discussion in the hope that this belief in SARE  is done away with. I know it is not easy as some strongly believe in its existence.

What is SARE ?

SARE according to our tradition is believed to be a growth that is located at the mouth of the vagina, slightly or just between the vaginal entrance and anus and is said to be very itchy. It is thought to cause children to die and also women to miscarry. It is also believed to be the cause of divorce as the women with SARE are rejected by their partners. There are several things said to be associated with SARE such as causing bad temper in women or decreasing libido or increased libido in some women. Sometimes women are called witches because of this SARE .

I have had heated arguments with several people about this issue and I must admit that it is difficult to dismiss a phenomenon that most people in our community across class and occupation vouch for. Having said that I think we must question this belief as it could be one of many gendered myths that blame women for all misfortunes that happen in marriage. Interestingly this SARE does not affect men , it’s only found in women.

Those who believe in it say that it must be cut off . What baffles me is that the ” sufferer” goes to untrained people in backyards to have ” operation ” to remove this growth. We are seeing self claimed prophets and traditional healers removing these so called growth in women. My question is why are these women not going to see medical doctors?

The sad and frightening thing is that these “backyard surgeons” are not trained in infection control and in human anatomy or physiology. There is risk that they may reuse the same blades to cut several women which can result in the spread of infections such as HIV and Hepatitis B and C. There are no measures taken to prevent women from bleeding to death or facilities to give blood to women if they lose blood during the “operation”. Women anatomy down below comes in different forms and shapes and this can confused untrained people who may end up cutting normal anatomy mistaking it for abnormal growth. This has sadly resulted in some women suffering from severe infections or being left with permanent damages resulting in them leaking urine or faeces for the rest of their lives.

Talking to gynaecologists who have specialised in the study of female genitalia , they tell you that from their several years of studying and examining several women , their conclusion is that there is nothing called SARE , it is a myth. They advised women to see them first before subjecting themselves to these “backyard surgeons”. Women must value their private parts and must not allow anyone to experiment with their most valued body parts.

My message to everyone reading this article is that the anatomy of the female genital area can be confusing to the layman so please see your doctor and not a prophet or a traditional healer for an “operation” when they do not even know what is a wart or a skin tag on your vaginal area. Several growths can occur down below and these may be polyps, piles, skin tags, warts, cysts or abscess or even ulcers which require different treatments. Your doctor and not a layman will help you in finding the right diagnosis for you and the right treatment.

Female genital mutilation has no place in this modern day era . It is I am afraid barbaric and must not be allowed. Women must take an active role on this issue and not allow ignorance to continue unabated. Divorces are taking place everyday and have nothing to do with the size or shape or structure of women’s private parts. I find it demeaning to women to be accused of causing divorces when men are not included.

We know children do die and the major causes of death are malnutrition and infection and not women’s fault . The society should put its energy and efforts in alleviating poverty instead of subjecting women to torture and anguish. Women must also liberate themselves from this mentality of accepting to be the scapegoat of everything to do with problems in families. Women do have miscarriages and it’s not their fault that these things happen. Couples must support each other and must go together and see a qualified health professional for medical help.

For those of us that read the bible , it is sadly written that my people perish for lack of knowledge as they have decided to ignore the knowledge. I have presented the facts here that SARE is a myth but I know that there are some who will not take heed . They will continue to go to these backyard places for ” operations “. Sadly infection will be waiting for them and some of it may be their cause to bid farewell to this earth. In Shona there is saying; “kwadzinorohwa matumbu ndiko kwadzinomhanyira ” (literally translation ; “where their abdomen are beaten , that’s where they run to”) meaning that people like to get themselves into trouble.

Once again if you have been wrongly “diagnosed ” by street “doctors ” that you have “SARE” please go and see your qualified registered doctor for assessment because you may be keeping a growth that may turn up to be cancerous or there is no need to worry it’s your normal natural body structure. You can only know this if you seek advice from the right people- your doctor .

 

This article was compiled by Dr Brighton Chireka, who is a GP and a Health Commissioner in South Kent Coast in the United Kingdom. You can contact him at: info@docbeecee.co.uk and can read more of his work on his blog at DR CHIREKA’S BLOG

 

Disclaimer: This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions. Dr Chireka has used all reasonable care in compiling the information but makes no warranty as to its accuracy. Consult a doctor or other health-care professional for diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. Views expressed here are personal and do not in any way, shape or form represents the views of organisations that Dr Chireka work for or is associated with.

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